“Sheep May Safely Graze”: Bach’s Tranquil Pastoral Aria

“Sheep May Safely Graze” (German: “Schafe können sicher weiden”) is one of the most cherished compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach. Originally written as part of the secular cantata “Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd,” BWV 208, this piece has transcended its original context to become a beloved stand-alone work, often performed at various occasions and settings. Here’s a closer look at “Sheep May Safely Graze” and the qualities that make it a timeless masterpiece.

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Context and Composition

Bach composed “Sheep May Safely Graze” in 1713 for the birthday celebration of Duke Christian of Saxe-Weissenfels. The cantata, known as the “Hunting Cantata,” praises the Duke’s qualities through allegorical references to hunting and pastoral life.

In the cantata, “Sheep May Safely Graze” is sung by the character Pales, the Roman deity of shepherds and livestock. The aria is meant to symbolize the benevolent rule of the Duke, where peace and prosperity reign.

Musical Characteristics

“Sheep May Safely Graze” is composed for soprano voice, two recorders, and continuo, although it has been arranged for various instrumental combinations over the years. The music is gentle and flowing, with a lilting melody that evokes the peaceful grazing of sheep.

The pastoral imagery is further enhanced by the accompaniment, where the recorders mimic the sound of shepherd pipes, and the continuo provides a steady, calming rhythm.

Lyrics and Symbolism

The lyrics of “Sheep May Safely Graze” are filled with pastoral symbolism, drawing a parallel between the shepherd’s care for his flock and the ruler’s care for his subjects. The text praises the virtues of wise governance, peace, and contentment, with the line “Where rulers govern well” resonating as a central theme.

Legacy and Adaptations

“Sheep May Safely Graze” has become one of Bach’s most recognizable and frequently performed works. Its serene beauty and universal appeal have led to its inclusion in various contexts, from weddings to memorial services.

The piece has also been adapted for different instruments and ensembles, with arrangements for piano, organ, string quartet, and more. These adaptations have allowed “Sheep May Safely Graze” to reach an even wider audience, maintaining its popularity across centuries.


“Sheep May Safely Graze” stands as a testament to Bach’s ability to craft music of timeless elegance and profound meaning. Its pastoral charm, lyrical grace, and underlying symbolism create a musical experience that resonates with listeners of all ages.

Whether heard within the context of the original cantata or as a stand-alone piece, “Sheep May Safely Graze” continues to touch hearts with its tranquility and beauty. Its enduring appeal as a symbol of peace and well-being makes it a cherished gem in the world of classical music, reflecting the universal human longing for harmony and contentment.

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